F1 News

Check out the latest news from the world of Formula 1

Ferrari to trial 2015 developments in the USA and Brazil

Ferrari will trial a range of 2015 solutions at the forthcoming races in Austin and Sao Paulo after identifying the exact areas in which they need to improve relative to their Formula One rivals.

Marussia and Caterham set to miss Austin round

Marussia and Caterham look unlikely to compete in this weekend’s 2014 Formula 1 United States Grand Prix, as both teams seek solutions to their ongoing financial issues, the former having gone into administration on Monday.

Lotus and Grosjean close to completing 2015 deal

Lotus have revealed that they are near to reaching an agreement with Romain Grosjean that will see the Frenchman stay on as Pastor Maldonado’s team mate in 2015.

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Know Circuit


The 5.14km long Buddh International Race Circuit has been designed by renowned German architect and racetrack designer, Herman Tilke, who has also designed other world class race circuits in Malaysia, Bahrain, China, Turkey, Indonesia, the UAE, South Africa, South Korea and the US.


The Buddh International race track has been designed as one of the fastest, most exciting circuits in the world and we're sure that both racers and race fans will like the circuit layout. The track will host some of the most challenging motorsports events in the world and it is well suited the requirements of powerful, high-spec racing cars and motorcycles. The track's combination of straights, corners and elevation changes has been designed to allow high speeds and provide opportunities for overtaking, which is what makes motor racing exciting. At the same time, in terms of adherence to safety norms and regulations, run-off areas and medical facilities etc., Buddh International will be one of the safest racetracks in the world.

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Calender 2014

01 2014 FORMULA 1 ROLEX AUSTRALIAN GRAND PRIX (Melbourne) 14 - 16 Mar
02 2014  FORMULA 1 PETRONAS MALAYSIA GRAND PRIX (Kuala Lumpur) 28 - 30 Mar
03 2014 FORMULA 1 GULF AIR BAHRAIN GRAND PRIX (Sakhir) 04 - 06 Apr
04 2014 FORMULA 1 UBS CHINESE GRAND PRIX (Shanghai) 18 - 20 Apr
05 FORMULA 1 GRAN PREMIO DE ESPAÑA SANTANDER 2014 (Catalunya) 09 - 11 May
06 FORMULA 1 GRAND PRIX DE MONACO 2014 (Monte Carlo) 22 - 25 May
07 FORMULA 1 GRAND PRIX DU CANADA 2014 (Montréal) 06 - 08 Jun
08 FORMULA 1 GROSSER PREIS VON ÖSTERREICH 2014
20 - 22 Jun
09 FORMULA 1 SANTANDER BRITISH GRAND PRIX (Silverstone) 04 - 06 Jul
10 FORMULA 1 GROSSER PREIS SANTANDER VON DEUTSCHLAND 2014
18 - 20 Jul
11 FORMULA 1 ENI MAGYAR NAGYDÍJ 2014 (Budapest) 25 - 27 Jul
12 FORMULA 1 SHELL BELGIAN GRAND PRIX (Spa-Francorchamps) 22 - 24 Aug
13 FORMULA 1 GRAN PREMIO SANTANDER D'ITALIA 2014 (Monza) 05 - 07 Sep
14 FORMULA 1 SINGTEL SINGAPORE GRAND PRIX (Singapore) 19 - 21 Sep
15 FORMULA 1 JAPANESE GRAND PRIX (Suzuka) 03 - 05 Oct
16 2014 FORMULA 1 RUSSIAN GRAND PRIX (SOCHI) 10 - 12 Nov
17 FORMULA 1 UNITED STATES GRAND PRIX (Austin) 31 Oct  - 02 Nov
18 FORMULA 1 GRANDE PRÊMIO DO BRASIL 2014 (São Paulo) 07 - 09 Nov
19 FORMULA 1 ETIHAD AIRWAYS ABU DHABI GRAND PRIX (Yas Marina)
21 - 23 Nov

 

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RESULTS

Lewis Hamilton

Grand Prix Date Winning Driver Team Laps Time
Australia 16/03/2014  Nico Rosberg  Mercedes  57  1:32:58.710
Malaysia 30/03/2014  Lewis Hamilton  Mercedes  56  1:40:25.974
Bahrain 06/04/2014  Lewis Hamilton  Mercedes  57  1:39:42:743
China 20/04/2014  Lewis Hamilton  Mercedes  54  1:33:28.338
Spain 11/05/2014  Lewis Hamilton  Mercedes   66  1:41:05.155
Monaco 25/05/2014  Nico Rosberg  Mercedes  78  1:49:27:661
Canada 08/06/2014  Daniel Ricciardo  Red Bull Racing-Renault  70  1:39:12.830
Austria 22/06/2014  Nico Rosberg  Mercedes  71  1:27:54.976
Great Britain 06/07/2014  Lewis Hamilton  Mercedes  52  2:26:52.094
Germany 20/07/2014  Nico Rosberg  Mercedes  67  1:33:42.914
Hungary 27/07/2014  Daniel Ricciardo  Red Bull Racing-Renault  70  1:53:05.058
Belgium 24/08/2014  Daniel Ricciardo Red Bull Racing-Renaultt  44  1:24:36.556
Italy 07/09/2014  Lewis Hamilton Mercedes  53  1:19:10.236
Singapore 21/09/2014  Lewis Hamilton Mercedes  60 2:00:04.795
Japan 05/10/2014  Lewis Hamilton Mercedes  44  1:51:43.021
Russia 12/10/2014 Lewis Hamilton Mercedes  53  1:31:50.744
United States 02/11/2014        
Brazil 09/11/2014        
Abu Dhabi 23/11/2014        

 

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Important Rules 2013

The FIA Formula One Sporting Regulations is very extensive but here is a small recap of the basic rules and most important changes for the 2013 season:

 

Points system:
Points for both titles (drivers and constructors) will be awarded at each Event according to the following scale:

 

1st 25 Points 6th 8 Points
2nd 18 Points 7th 6 Points
3rd 15 Points 8th 4 Points
4th 12 Points 9th 2 Points
5th 10 Points 10th 1 Points

 

If the leader has completed less than two laps then no points will be awarded, half points will be awarded if the leader has completed more than two laps but less than 75% of the original race distance and full points will be awarded if the leader has completed 75% or more of the original race distance.

 

Drivers:
During each season teams will be permitted to use four drivers with any new driver being able to score points. In addition to this, each team is permitted to run additional drivers on any Friday practice session (no more than two drivers are allowed in one session) as long as they possess a Super Licence.

 

Testing:
No competitor may carry out more than 15,000 km of track testing during a calendar year. No track testing may take place whilst a Championship Event is taking place, during the month of August or between the start of the week preceding the first event of the Championship and the 31st of December of the same year.

 

Tyres:
Pirelli is the sole supplier of tyres. There are six different tyres: four dry options, one wet and one intermediate. Of the four dry options, Pirelli nominates the two options (one called prime which is harder and one called option which is softer) available to the teams at each Grand Prix, whilst the intermediate and dry always remain. The allocation per driver contains a maximum of eleven sets of dry-weather tyres, six of prime specification and five of option specification at one event.

 

No driver may use more than four sets of intermediate tyres and three sets of wet-weather tyres at one event.

 

Qualifying:
Qualifying is divided into three sessions: Q1, Q2 and Q3.

 

During Q1, any driver whose best qualifying lap exceeds 107% of the fastest time set duringthat session, or who fails to set a time, will not be allowed to take part in the race. Underexceptional circumstances however, which may include setting a suitable lap time in a freepractice session, the stewards may permit the car to start the race. The bottom six drivers will be eliminated and not take part in Q2, starting Sunday's race from their Q1 classification.

 

Of the 18 remaining in Q2, only ten will move on to Q3. In Q3 the top ten drivers will battle it out to determine the final starting grid for Sunday's Grand Prix.

 

Spare cars, engines and gearboxes:
Each competitor may have no more than two cars available for use at any one time during an event. Each driver may use no more than eight engines during a Championship season. If a driver uses more than eight then he will drop ten places on the starting grid.

 

Each driver may use no more than one gearbox for five consecutive events in which his team competes. If a driver uses a replacement gearbox he will drop five places on the starting grid.

 

Curfew:
No team personnel who are associated in any way with the operation of the cars are permitted within the confines of the circuit during the following periods:

  1. One six hour period which commences nine hours before the scheduled start time of P1.
  2. With the exception of Monaco, a second period which begins ten and a half hours afterthe scheduled end of P2 and ends three hours before the scheduled start time of P3.
  3. In Monaco the second period will begin thirty two and a half hours after the scheduledend of P2 and ends three hours before the scheduled start time of P3.However, each team will be permitted four individual exceptions to the above during aChampionship season.

 

Dimensions:
The overall width of the car, excluding tyres, must not exceed 1800mm. The overall height of the car must not exceed 950mm. The weight of the car must not be less than 640kg at all times during the event.

 

2012 changes:

 

Suspended races:
If two hours have passed before the scheduled race distance is completed then the leader is shown the chequered flag when he crosses the control line at the end of the lap during which the two hour period ended. If a race is suspended, the maximum race time is set to four hours.

 

Driving:
Drivers are not allowed to leave the track without a justifiable reason (a driver is judged to have left the track if no part of the car remains in contact with the track). More than one change of direction to defend a position is not permitted: If a driver goes off-line to defend his position and returns to the racing line, he must leave one car width between his own car and the edge of the track on the approach to the corner.

 

Tyres:
Drivers may use all tyres allocated to them on the first day of practice, as opposed to last year when only three sets were permitted on the first day.

 

Safety Car:
As of this season, cars will be able to "unlap" themselves when the safety car is deployed and re-join the race at the back of the field.

 

Testing:
In-season testing will return with a three-day test to be held at Mugello from the 1st to the 3rd of May.

 

Crash tests:
This year all cars must pass crash tests performed on the front, side, rear of the chassis and the steering column before taking part in any on-track testing.

 

Blown diffusers:
Since the 2011 European Grand Prix, teams can no longer adjust engine mapping between qualifying and the race.

 

As of this year, the practice of hot blowing and cold blowing exhaust through the diffusers has been banned.

Glossary

107% rule
During the first phase of qualifying, any driver who fails to set a lap within 107 percent of the fastest Q1 time will not be allowed to start the race. However, in exceptional circumstances, which could include a driver setting a suitable time during practice, the stewards may permit the car to start.

 

Aerodynamics
The study of airflow over and around an object and an intrinsic part of Formula One car design.

 

Apex
The middle point of the inside line around a corner at which drivers aim their cars.

 

Appeal
An action that a team takes on its drivers' behalf if it feels that they have been unfairly penalised by the race officials.

 

Ballast
Weights fixed around the car to maximise its balance and bring it up to the minimum weight limit.

 

Bargeboard
The piece of bodywork mounted vertically between the front wheels and the start of the sidepods to help smooth the airflow around the sides of the car.

 

Blistering
The consequence of a tyre, or part of a tyre, overheating. Excess heat can cause rubber to soften and break away in chunks from the body of the tyre. Blistering can be caused by the selection of an inappropriate tyre compound (for example, one that is too soft for circuit conditions), too high tyre pressure, or an improperly set up car.

 

Bodywork
The carbon fibre sections fitted onto the monocoque before the cars leave the pits, such as the engine cover, the cockpit top and the nosecone.

 

Bottoming
When a car's chassis hits the track surface as it runs through a sharp compression and reaches the bottom of its suspension travel.

 

Brake balance
A switch in the cockpit to alter the split of the car's braking power between the front and the rear wheels according to a driver's wishes.

 

Chassis
The main part of a racing car to which the engine and suspension are attached is called the chassis.

 

Chicane
A tight sequence of corners in alternate directions. Usually inserted into a circuit to slow the cars, often just before what had been a high-speed corner.

 

Clean air
Air that isn't turbulent, and thus offers optimum aerodynamic conditions, as experienced by a car at the head of the field.

 

Cockpit
The section of the chassis in which the driver sits.

 

Compound
Tread compound is the part of any tyre in contact with the road and therefore one of the major factors in deciding tyre performance. The ideal compound is one with maximum grip but which still maintains durability and heat resistance. A typical Formula One race compound will have more than ten ingredients such as rubbers, polymers, sulphur, carbon black, oil and other curatives. Each of these includes a vast number of derivatives any of which can be used to a greater or lesser degree. Very small changes to the mix can change compound performance.

 

Diffuser
The rear section of the car's floor or undertray where the air flowing under the car exits. The design of the diffuser is crucial as it controls the speed at which the air exits. The faster its exit, the lower the air pressure beneath the car, and hence the more downforce the car generates.

 

Downforce
The aerodynamic force that is applied in a downwards direction as a car travels forwards. This is harnessed to improve a car's traction and its handling through corners.

 

Drag
The aerodynamic resistance experienced as a car travels forwards.

 

DRS
Also known as adjustable rear wings, DRS (Drag Reduction System) rear wings allow the driver to adjust the wing between two pre-determined settings from the cockpit. The system's availability is electronically governed - it can be used at any time in practice and qualifying (unless a driver is on wet-weather tyres), but during the race can only be activated when a driver is less than one second behind another car at pre-determined points on the track. The system is then deactivated once the driver brakes. In combination with KERS, it is designed to boost overtaking. Also like KERS, it isn't compulsory.

 

Drive-through penalty
One of two penalties that can be handed out at the discretion of the Stewards whilst the race is still running. Drivers must enter the pit lane, drive through it complying with the speed limit, and re-join the race without stopping.

 

Flat spot
The term given to the area of a tyre that is worn heavily on one spot after a moment of extreme braking or in the course of a spin. This ruins its handling, often causing severe vibration, and may force a driver to pit for a replacement set of tyres.

 

Formation lap
The lap before the start of the race when the cars are driven round from the grid to form up on the grid again for the start of the race. Sometimes referred to as the warm-up lap or parade lap.

 

G-force
A physical force equivalent to one unit of gravity that is multiplied during rapid changes of direction or velocity. Drivers experience severe G-forces as they corner, accelerate and brake.

 

Graining
When a car slides, it can cause little bits or rubber ('grains') to break away from the tyre's grooves. These then stick to the tread of the tyre, effectively separating the tyre from the track surface very slightly. For the driver, the effect is like driving on ball bearings. Careful driving can clear the graining within a few laps, but will obviously have an effect on the driver's pace. Driving style, track conditions, car set-up, fuel load and the tyre itself all play a role in graining. In essence, the more the tyre moves about on the track surface (ie slides), the more likely graining is.

 

Gravel trap
A bed of gravel on the outside of corners designed with the aim of bringing cars that fall off the circuit to a halt.

 

Grip
The amount of traction a car has at any given point, affecting how easy it is for the driver to keep control through corners.

 

Installation lap
A lap done on arrival at a circuit, testing functions such as throttle, brakes and steering before heading back to the pits without crossing the finish line.

 

Jump start
When a driver moves off his grid position before the five red lights have been switched off to signal the start. Sensors detect premature movement and a jump start earns a driver a penalty.

 

KERS
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems, or KERS, are legal from 2009 onwards. KERS recover waste kinetic energy from the car during braking, store that energy and then make it available to propel the car. The driver has access to the additional power for limited periods per lap, via a 'boost button' on the steering wheel.

 

Left-foot braking
A style of braking made popular in the 1990s following the arrival of hand clutches so that drivers could keep their right foot on the throttle and dedicate their left to braking.

 

Lollipop
The sign on a stick held in front of the car during a pit stop to inform the driver to apply the brakes and then to engage first gear prior to the car being lowered from its jacks.

 

Marshal
A course official who oversees the safe running of the race. Marshals have several roles to fill, including observing the spectators to ensure they do not endanger themselves or the competitors, acting as fire wardens, helping to remove stranded cars/drivers from the track and using waving flags to signal the condition of the track to drivers.

 

Monocoque
The single-piece tub in which the cockpit is located, with the engine fixed behind it and the front suspension on either side at the front.

 

Oversteer
When a car's rear end doesn't want to go around a corner and tries to overtake the front end as the driver turns in towards the apex. This often requires opposite-lock to correct, whereby the driver turns the front wheels into the skid.

 

Paddles
Levers on either side of the back of a steering wheel with which a driver changes up and down the gearbox.

 

Paddock
An enclosed area behind the pits in which the teams keep their transporters and motor homes. There is no admission to the public.

 

Parc ferme
A fenced-off area into which cars are driven after qualifying and the race, where no team members are allowed to touch them except under the strict supervision of race stewards.

 

Pit board
A board held out on the pit wall to inform a driver of his race position, the time interval to the car ahead or the one behind, plus the number of laps of the race remaining.

 

Pit wall
Where the team owner, managers and engineers spend the race, usually under an awning to keep sun and rain off their monitors.

 

Pits
An area of track separated from the start/finish straight by a wall, where the cars are brought for new tyres and fuel during the race, or for set-up changes in practice, each stopping at their respective pit garages.

 

Plank
A hard wooden strip (also known as a skid block) that is fitted front-to-back down the middle of the underside of all cars to check that they are not being run too close to the track surface, something that is apparent if the wood is excessively worn.

 

Pole position
The first place on the starting grid, as awarded to the driver who recorded the fastest lap time in qualifying.

 

Practice
The periods on Friday and on Saturday morning at a Grand Prix meeting when the drivers are out on the track working on the set-up of their cars in preparation for qualifying and the race.

 

Protest
An action lodged by a team when it considers that another team or competitor has transgressed the rules.

 

Qualifying
The knock-out session on Saturday in which the drivers compete to set the best time they can in order to determine the starting grid for the race.

 

Reconnaissance lap
A lap completed when drivers leave the pits to assemble on the grid for the start. If a driver decides to do several, they must divert through the pit lane as the grid will be crowded with team personnel.

 

Retirement
When a car has to drop out of the race because of an accident or mechanical failure.

 

Ride height
The height between the track's surface and the floor of the car.

 

Safety Car
The course vehicle that is called from the pits to run in front of the leading car in the race in the event of a problem that requires the cars to be slowed.

 

Scrutineering
The technical checking of cars by the officials to ensure that none are outside the regulations.

 

Sectors
For timing purposes the lap is split into three sections, each of which is roughly a third of the lap. These sections are officially known as Sector 1, Sector 2 and Sector 3.

 

Shakedown
A brief test when a team is trying a different car part for the first time before going back out to drive at 100 percent to set a fast time.

 

Sidepod
The part of the car that flanks the sides of the monocoque alongside the driver and runs back to the rear wing, housing the radiators.

 

Slipstreaming
A driving tactic when a driver is able to catch the car ahead and duck in behind its rear wing to benefit from a reduction in drag over its body and hopefully be able to achieve a superior maximum speed to slingshot past before the next corner.

 

Steward
One of three high-ranking officials at each Grand Prix appointed to make decisions.

 

Stop-go penalty
A penalty given that involves the driver calling at his pit and stopping for 10 seconds - with no refuelling or tyre-changing allowed.

 

Tear-off strips
See-through plastic strips that drivers fit to their helmet's visor before the start of the race and then remove as they become dirty.

 

Telemetry
A system that beams data related to the engine and chassis to computers in the pit garage so that engineers can monitor that car's behaviour.

 

Torque
Literally, the turning or twisting force of an engine, torque is generally used as a measure of an engine's flexibility. An engine may be very powerful, but if it has little torque then that power may only be available over a limited rev range, making it of limited use to the driver. An engine with more torque - even if it has less power - may actually prove quicker on many tracks, as the power is available over a far wider rev range and hence more accessible. Good torque is particularly vital on circuits with a number of mid- to slow-speed turns, where acceleration out of the corners is essential to a good lap time.

 

Traction
The degree to which a car is able to transfer its power onto the track surface for forward progress.

 

Traction control
A computerised system that detects if either of a car's driven (rear) wheels is losing traction - ie spinning - and transfers more drive to the wheel with more traction, thus using its more power efficiently. Outlawed from the 2008 season onwards.

 

Turbulence
The result of the disruption of airflow caused by an interruption to its passage, such as when it hits a rear wing and its horizontal flow is spoiled.

 

Tyre compound
The type of rubber mix used in the construction of a tyre, ranging from soft through medium to hard, with each offering a different performance and wear characteristic.

 

Tyre warmer
An electric blanket that is wrapped around the tyres before they are fitted to the car so that they will start closer to their optimum operating temperature.

 

Understeer
Where the front end of the car doesn't want to turn into a corner and slides wide as the driver tries to turn in towards the apex.

 

Undertray
A separate floor to the car that is bolted onto the underside of the monocoque.

Security

1950
The first Formula One race is held at Silverstone in England. The cars were designed purely for speed, with front engines and drum brakes - a fascinating experience without medical back-up or any form of safety net.

 

1955
Disc brakes are introduced, and a ‘relocation’ takes place - Australian Jack Brabham, in his Cooper, is the first Formula One competitor to drive a mid-engined, rather than front-engined, car.

 

1960
The first safety measures are introduced to Formula One racing.

 

1961
Roll-overs bars are introduced for the first time.

 

1963
Flag signals are introduced. Vehicle fire prevention is advanced by improvements in fuel-tank construction. Double brake circuit becomes mandatory. The Federation Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA) assumes responsibility for safety on racing circuits. Drivers are required to wear fireproof suits and unbreakable, full-visor helmets. Cockpits are restructured to allow the drivers to get out more quickly.

 

1968
Interrupters for electronic systems are introduced. The roll-over bar must reach five centimetres higher than the driver’s head. Additional fireproof clothing is recommended. Dan Gurney is the first driver to use a full-visor helmet in practice for the British Grand Prix.

 

1969

A double fire extinguishing system is introduced.

 

1970
The FIA introduces circuit inspections before races. Stipulations include double crash barriers, a safety distance of three metres between fences and spectators, as well as a wall between the pit lane and the track.

 

1971
The cockpit must be designed in such a way that the driver can be rescued within five seconds.

 

1972
Head rests and red rear lights are introduced. Fuel tanks contain security foam. The six-point seatbelt becomes mandatory. The FIA introduces a ‘code of conduct’ for all drivers.

 

1973
Medical tests for all drivers. Integration of the fuel tank into crash and fire resistant structures.

 

1974
Circuit safety walls become mandatory.

 

1975
The FIA defines the standard for fireproof clothing. The presence of marshals, a medical service with a centre for resuscitation and compulsory rescue training become mandatory.

 

1977
The FIA determines uniform specifications for gravel traps and defines the standard for helmets.

 

1978
Only drivers with an FIA super license may enter Formula One races. A sheet-pile wall behind the driver and a front rollover bar are introduced to cars.

 

1979
Larger cockpit openings are made compulsory. Niki Lauda, Carlos Reutemann and Mario Andretti compete in overalls made of five layers of fireproof material, as used by NASA, for the first time.

 

1980
Permanent medical centres at circuits become compulsory.

 

1981
The car’s safety cell is extended to include the driver’s foot area.

 

1984
The fuel tank must be located between the driver and the engine.

 

1985
Initial crash tests are used to determine the effects of frontal impact on cars.

 

1986
Helicopters must be on stand-by, ready for circuit medical personnel.

 

1987
The FIA regulates safety on non-permanent racing tracks.

 

1988
Crash tests for the car’s safety cell and the fuel tank are introduced. The driver’s feet must be behind the front axle. A permanent FIA race director is appointed.

 

1989
Track safety walls must be at least one metre high, and the pit wall must have a minimum height of 1.35 metres. Doping tests are introduced, similar to those of the International Olympic Committee.

 

1990
Larger rear-view mirrors and detachable steering wheels become mandatory. Rescue training for drivers becomes compulsory.

 

1991
Tests for roll-over bars, seatbelts and survival cells introduced.

 

1992
Introduction of the official Formula One safety car and stricter crash tests.

 

1993
Area of drivers’ head protection material around the cockpit is increased from 80 to 400 square centimetres. The height of the rear wing is reduced, the distance from the front wing to the ground is increased and the circumference of the steering wheel is reduced. Exotic fuel mixtures are banned.

 

1994
All members of the refuelling crew must wear fireproof clothing. The FIA assigns a team of experts to check how Formula One racing can be made safer by means of new technologies. Auxiliary driving aids such as traction control, ABS, power-assisted brakes and automatic transmissions are prohibited. The FIA uses computer analysis to identify 27 particularly dangerous corners that have to be made safer. Test procedures for tyre barriers become mandatory, and barriers must also be secured by rubber belts. The speed limit in the pit lane is reduced to 80 km/h in practice and 120 km/h in races. The production standard for helmets becomes stricter.

 

1995
Crash tests become stricter and lateral crash tests are introduced. The FIA introduces new criteria for the acquisition of an F1 super license.

 

1997
FIA accident data recorders are installed in all cars for more precise accident analysis. A rear impact test and new rear crash structures are made compulsory. Tyre barriers have to be bolted down.

 

1998
Car width is reduced from 2 to 1.8 metres. Cockpits are enlarged. A driver must be able to detach the steering wheel, exit the cockpit and reattach the steering wheel, all within ten seconds. Rear-view mirrors must be at least 120x50 millimetres.

 

1999
Wheels are attached to the chassis by tethers to stop them from flying off during accidents.
The seat and driver can be removed together. Front crash tests become stricter. Asphalt instead of gravel is used for some run-off areas. Four medically-equipped rescue vehicles and a car for the FIA-doctor are made compulsory.

 

2000
Impact speed for the mandatory crash test is raised from 13 to 14 metres per second. The carbon fibre walls of the cockpit must be at least 3.5 millimetres thick. A 2.5 millimetre layer of Kevlar® fibre inside the cockpit walls is designed to resist penetration. The roll-over bar above the driver’s head is raised from 50 to 70 millimetres and must be able to withstand a lateral force of 2.4 tons.

 

2001
Blue flag: driver must allow a vehicle behind him to pass when the blue flag is shown for the third time, otherwise a ten-second stop-and-go penalty will be imposed. The marshals are better protected thanks to stricter safety standards. Headrests must be mounted in accordance with FIA standards. Cockpit walls at driver’s head level must rise to the rear at a slope of at least 16 degrees. The speed during lateral impact tests is increased from seven to ten metres per second.

 

2002
Time penalties (stop-and-go) can be imposed on drivers who trigger a false start, cause an accident or collision, force another driver off the track, fail to heed a blue flag three times, or intentionally impede another driver trying to overtake. Time penalties are also incurred for exceeding the speed limit in the pit lane, and may be imposed for running over chicanes if this gives an advantage to the driver in terms of track position. New lateral crash test for the rear of the cars - a force of 40kN is exerted for 30 seconds on a defined area and there may be no discernible deformation. The rear lights are increased in size to six by six centimetres.

 

2003
Numerous circuits undergo reconstruction prior to the season so as to improve safety even further. Silverstone: Stowe corner’s run-off area is changed to asphalt. Nurburgring: chicane before the final corner is revised. Magny-Cours: pit exit lane is made safer, allowing cars to rejoin the circuit at racing speed. Budapest: run-off zones and safety walls in the first corner are increased in size. Suzuka: given larger run-off zones and new emergency access routes. The HANS system, which was first introduced in 2001, becomes mandatory for all drivers.

 

2004
Monte Carlo is given a permanent pit lane with garages for all the teams. New tracks in Bahrain and Shanghai set new standards in terms of safety. The FIA introduces a new safety standard which sets out even higher requirements for the development of driver helmets.

 

2005
Protective padding on the inside of the cockpit is thickened from 75 to 100 millimetres. Wheel tethers must be able to withstand a minimum load of 6 tons. To avoid sharp carbon fibre splinters on the track after accidents, all front wings, barge boards and small aerodynamic body parts must be given an additional outer coating of Kevlar®, or a similar material.

 

2006
The impact speed for the rear crash test is increased from 12 to 15 metres per second.

 

2007
If the safety car is deployed, the pit lane is closed and only opened again when the entire field has formed up in position behind the safety car. Cars are fitted with LEDs that transmit the flag signals from marshals to drivers in the cockpit. After a year’s break for reconstruction work to improve track safety, Spa returns to the calendar. The speed limit in the pit lane is reduced from 100 to 80 km/h. During a safety car phase, any lapped cars positioned between the cars running on the lead lap may overtake them and the safety car, in order to take up position at the back of the field - this is designed to prevent the leading drivers from being separated or even hindered by trailing cars at the re-start.

 

2009
The FIA forms the Motor Sport Safety Development Fund, with a management committee comprising Michael Schumacher as Chairman, Max Mosley, Nick Craw, Jean Todt and Norbert Haug - within five years the fund will be utilized for a safety programme for young drivers, a training programme for officials and a programme for circuit safety. The process of appointing race stewards is changed and the stewards are provided with an improved video analysis system. All decisions after incidents will be published online by the FIA, with video evidence provided alongside rulings when required.

 

2010
Experienced former Formula One drivers are recruited to assist stewards in decision making relating to race incidents. A permanent panel of three FIA stewards to attend every Grand Prix, joined by an additional local steward at each race.

 

2011
To reduce the speed of Formula One cars and to facilitate overtaking, the double diffusers used since 2009 and the F-ducts developed in 2010 are prohibited. This leads to a significant reduction in downforce. The FIA prescribes minimum dimensions for the roll-over bars in order to preclude the development of extremely slim components. The wheels of the Formula One cars have to be fastened to the uprights by two tethers in future to prevent stray tyres on the track after an accident. The outside mirrors may only be attached to the sides of the cockpit in a strictly prescribed area in order to improve the drivers’ rear view visbility. In recent history the mirrors had been mounted on the outside, to the sidepods, for aerodynamic reasons, which made it difficult for the drivers to look into the mirrors. Finally, the new helmets feature an additional safety improvement, the addition of a Zylon strip across the top of the visor. This is intended to reinforce the weakest point of the otherwise tough racing helmets. The polycarbonate visor is more vulnerable than the overall shell, but the addition of the Zylon strip now doubles its impact performance.
 

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Know drivers

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Teams

Pos Team Points
1 Mercedes 565
2 Red Bull Racing-Renault 342
3 Williams-Mercedes 216
4 Ferrari 188
5 McLaren-Mercedes 143
6 Force India-Mercedes 123
7 STR-Renault 29
8 Lotus-Renault 8
9 Marussia-Ferrari 2
10 Sauber-Ferrari 0
11 Caterham-Renault 0

 

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